Electronics

How to Distinguish the VHF from UHF Antennas?

Spread the love

If you seriously want to discontinue your subscription with your cable provider or you want to add local stations that aren’t currently part of your subscribed TV bundle, integrating an antenna into your TV system at home will make it all possible. The process is simple to carry out and generally inexpensive. 

But there is a minor setback that must be looked into here. Over-the-air television signals use two separate sets of frequencies. There is a good chance that the TV channels you want to watch on your TV are available on both bands, or on only one of them. With that scenario in mind, you won’t see the channels, until you realize you have a dire need for an appropriate antenna.

communication antenna

UHF Antenna vs VHF Antenna

Very high frequency, otherwise known as VHF, and ultrahigh-frequency, or simply UHF TV signals are transmitted over the radio (UHF). On the lower VHF (54 to 216 MHz) and upper UHF (from 470 to 890 MHz) radio frequencies, the VHF band covers the same broadcast area.

For amateur radio operators, the band choice of frequencies has a lot to do with the scope of the signal. Until cable TV came along, the majority of television stations were using UHF. The reason being it was less prone to interference issues.

Besides, it also transmitted better over the length of the wire. The UHF antennas these days is more common than it was in previous decades because it made HD programming possible. 

Antennas With Visible Elements

electronicsThe size of the elements in your antenna indicates whether it can receive VHF or both VHF and UHF. These types of antennas are generally classified as omnidirectional aluminum antennas. 

These antennas are designed to operate in only one direction. It is either horizontally or vertically. It is also typical for them to have single prongs with varying widths that are laid out in parallel rows.

Longer elements in an easy-to-remember V-shaped design make up an outdoor VHF antenna.   An antenna that contains both V-shaped and a more compact group of straight elements should be capable of transmitting both signals.

The most basic indoor antenna is the basic rabbit ears design. This type of antenna can receive a VHF signal. In the case of the UHF, it makes use of a loop-shaped antenna. This can be arranged, either horizontally or vertically. 

To relay both sets of frequencies, many antennas have rabbit ears and loops.

Antennas Without Visible Elements

Certain antennas are visually unidentifiable, either because they are concealed inside a streamlined case or because they are shaped differently, such as a flat type of antenna for greater ease in-wall mounting.

Such information can be found on a plate or decal attached to the antenna. Sometimes you will see them instead in the user’s manual. The band includes UHF television channels 2 through 13, as well as UHF television channels 14 through 51. 

Choosing a TV Antenna 

When deciding between antennas or whether an existing antenna would suffice, two factors must be taken into account: the channels you want to receive and the strength of their signals.

That’s trickier than it seems, since Channel 6 Local News may now transmit on – for example – UHF channel 38 rather than VHF channel 6, it will continue to appear on channel 6, in order to maintain the station’s branding. 

On the Federal Communications Commission’s website, you can check and compare your station’s actual and virtual channel numbers by call sign. You may need a UHF antenna, a VHF antenna, or a dual-band antenna.

Additionally, there are online resources available on enthusiast websites and antenna manufacturer websites that indicate the strength of a channel’s signal in your region. You can reference them if you want to choose between a basic and inexpensive indoor antenna, a more powerful amplified antenna, or a full-bore outdoor antenna.

How Do We Fix Interference in WiFi Antenna?

Spread the love

A WiFi antennas transmits signals over the airwaves. And by now most of us know that wireless connection, in comparison to being hard-wired, is most prone to interference. 

If interference occurs, two possible scenarios are waiting to happen —  your connection will be disrupted, or you’d be completely disconnected. This is the reason why a wireless connection is unstable and not secure. Good thing that there is a workaround in this kind of connectivity issue. 

Interference in a wireless network can be brought about by a gamut of reasons. It can come from your own or your neighbor’s. Or it can be induced by nearby pieces of equipment such as microwave machines and radar systems. 

antenna

Non-WiFi wireless devices can cause interference, too. Indeed, many possibilities can be taken into account. 

This is the reason why tracking down the root cause of interference or fixing the same can be quite a task. However, knowing where you should start may be the first big step you need to take.   

Identifying Interference Issues Using WiFi Survey

One way to verify that your network has some kind of network issue is by conducting site surveying work. There are many ways to do that. All of which, though, would necessitate you to walk through the coverage areas of the network. 

While walking yourself around the coverage areas, you can do a spot check by making use of wireless adapters and the right apps for the job. 

Alternatively, you can check out some professional surveying programs for this purpose. Such applications will help you analyze the data you were able to gather. 

In the end, surveying programs will create substantial noise and signal heat maps, as well as SNR, overlaid on the coverage area floor plans.   

Interference Caused by Your Own Access Point 

There are occasions that the issue is within the network itself. This, by far, is considered a major interference problem with WiFi networks. A wireless network that is not properly configured runs the risks of the AP signs getting in the way of each other.  

What you’d want to have is 15% to 20% coverage to overlap between AP cells. Should it be less than that or there is completely no overlapping at all between the AP cells, it increases the odds of your network having bad signal spots. 

On the other hand, if either band has too much overlapping between its AP cells, it will induce co-channel interruptions along with a handful of other concerns.   

Migrating Other Clients to the 5 GHz Band

In general, a 2.4 GHz band would be best described as having more congestion issues and interference. This brings us to think that the 5 GHz band can assist clients to move away from interference issues, thus further enhancing the network’s overall performance. 

Aside from seeing to it that clients and APs can provide support to both bands, take into account also the possibility of using a band-steering functionality which the APs can provide.  

This functionality will have dual-band devices to make connections to nearby 5 GHz bands of the APs as opposed to leaving things up to the client itself or the user. 

Some APs allow you to enable or disable band steering. Others would allow the configuration of signal thresholds so that dual-band devices are not forced into having to use 5 GHz.  

Increasing a WiFi antenna’s transmission rate would substantially put to a minimum the level of interference that may occur. The working idea behind this is that the faster you send and receive the communication, the less interference will likely take place. 

 

 

How Can Farmers Utilize GPS Antenna and Technology to Their Advantage?

Spread the love

dronesCompared to how it was in past decades, the industry of agriculture has taken on a new form today. It looks different now because it has become a high-tech enterprise. Latest developments and advances in GPS antenna, electronic sensors, and other related technology has pushed the farming sphere into what can be best described as a technological wonderland.  

Beyond the now de rigor elements of a modern large tractor, inside their enclosed cabin you are likely to find computer displays that indicate the machine’s level of performance, or the machinery attachment’s operating characteristics such as seed planters, and field position.  

It sounds amazing but that is not all there is. Soon flying robots and automated machinery that can autonomously survey and treat crops will become an ordinary sight to behold in farming lands. Little by little, we are laying the foundations of precision farming or precision agriculture. 

This inundation of high-tech gadgetry in the farming industry is driven by one ultimate purpose and that is optimization. This is from both the environmental and economic standpoint. What we are after here is the optimal application amount of any input, from fertilizer, pesticide, water, labor, and fuel — where and when they are needed to become a step closer to high crop yields. 

GPS Antenna Systems Provides for Hyperlocal Info

At any point on earth’s surface, GPS can provide us the accurate location information that we need. This is done by calculating your distance with respect to a minimum of 3 orbiting satellites at once. This allows your farming equipment with GPS antennas to identify their position inside a farm field and with that, they can make necessary operational tweaks to make way for optimal productivity at that specific location. 

Take into account the fertility of the soil. A farmworker can take advantage of a GPS receiver in identifying preselected field areas for collecting soil samples. A dedicated laboratory takes charge from here and analyzes the submitted soil samples. Eventually, they’d be able to come up with a geographic information system fertility map. 

It is essentially a database program in a computer that deals with mapping and geographic data. This map will allow a farmworker to know the right amount of fertilizer to use and apply for each sampled field location. Variable-rate technology or VRT applicator of fertilizers is a classic example of this concept known as precision farming or precision agriculture.  

Information, Tools, and Analysis

Three things will define what successful precision agriculture is all about. First, there has to be site-specific information present, the soil fertility map satisfies this aspect. It calls for the ability to understand and come up with decisions with respect to the site-specific information. Most of the time, decision-making will be based upon the computer-models which perform the statistical and mathematical analysis of relationships among variables such as the yield of the crop itself and soil fertility.  

Then lastly, a farmworker needs to have the necessary physical tools that will help him put into action all the final management decisions. For example, a GPS-equipped VRT fertilizer applicator provides this purpose. It automatically implements the necessary rate adjustment that is appropriate for every single field position. 

Other examples of successful precision farming include variation in the rates of planting seeds with regard to the type of the soil itself as well as the use of sensors that help in identifying crop diseases, weeds or insects which allows for identifying areas of the field where pesticide application is most needed.  

 

What are Some of the Most Asked Questions About GPS Antenna?

Spread the love

If there is one thing that is constant with this world of ours, we’d all agree that change is the only thing that stays, and that happens in many different aspects. And topping our list of ever-changing things would be technology. And it does so to adapt to our ever-growing needs, all for an improved and better way of life.

With the gamut of technology we have access to nowadays, we mustn’t lose sight of what every single one of them does. When it comes to GPS antennas, here are some of the most commonly asked questions that people have about them. It’s good to learn a great deal about this technology that has taken our lives to greater heights and we haven’t noticed it.  

modem cable

What is the technology behind GPS Antenna? 

Sometimes referred to as a GPS or global positioning system, this is a cluster of 27 artificial satellites in orbit. Right now 24 out of these 27 are actively working in our night skies, the extra 3 satellites are sparse just in case one of them is amiss or fails to function correctly or as expected. 

When average people talk about GPS technology, they often refer to the GPS receiver itself. Original design and structure for this type of network came from the U.S. military, implementing this conceptual network of satellites solely and exclusively for military navigation systems. However, today the signals became accessible to the general public for common use.  

How Does GPS Work?

People have a handful of wrong impressions about GPS and how it works. One is that they tend to confuse it with communication satellites. This is not right because communications satellites are intended for wireless communications, therefore they have different functions and are thus not the same. What the majority of people are not aware of is that these two kinds of satellites are completely different from each other. 

The majority of implemented systems we have nowadays made use of GPS antennas and satellite technology, all for location purposes. The real-time systems that we have back then are making use of various wireless networks to link up the location data. 

This allows for users to take advantage of vehicle tracking GPS technology to identify the precise geographic locations of assets or vehicles in real-time. 

The Anatomy of GPS Vehicle Tracking Mechanism

GPS antennas are normally tethered to a vehicle unit by virtue of a wire made of lead, which usually measures 10-15 feet long. They are designed in such a way they would efficiently gather GPS data and feed these to the unit. The unit will subsequently process the speed and events. 

It should be noted also that GPS vehicle trackers come with their internal modem, much like those found inside our mobile phones. The purpose of these types of modems is to link up and communicate with Global Tracking systems. 

The collected GPS data will be relayed to the vehicle’s unit and onto the servers. This is where the information is going to be processed for the user, and they all happen in real-time. 

Installation of GPS Antenna

GPS systems are fairly very easy to install. You just need to hook up the ground and some power cables. Then, you will need to mount your GPS antenna, and once they are all set, your system should be good and ready to hit the ground. 

When it comes to working on projects that involve or call for technical expertise such as mounting and installing GPS type of antenna, we recommend that you consider enlisting the help of professionals instead. By this measure, you are assured that all aspects of the job are taken care of and the job will be done right the first time.   

 

Features to Look For in 3D Printers

Spread the love

3D printing and printers have exploded in terms of their popularity. Although not everyone can easily access them in the past, today, with the increase in affordable three-dimensional printers and resources- from 3D printing software to downloadable 3D printable files, people can enjoy the benefits offered by 3D printing in their own houses. But just like with other purchases, especially in the technology field, you may want to focus on the right and best features. It is essential to know what to look for when you plan to buy a 3D printer.

digitization

Things to Look for When Buying 3D Printers

If you have plans of buying such a type of printer, keep in mind that there are many things you need to consider. Some of them are as follows.

Noise

The printer’s noise is a big factor. No printer is silent; however, some are quieter as compared to others. At the same time, the physical set up could contribute to its noise level. In case you are printing in your bedroom, the noise level has a pivotal role to play. Even if you have a specific printing area, the sound might still be heard by the neighbors or the home. Hacks like placing the printer on a solid surface or top of a carpet or yoga mat or dampening the surfaces to lessen the noise may help.

Speed

The printers have varying speeds. Typically, a resin printer, for instance, has a slower speed as compared to FDM printers. If your printing is just for fun, speed may not matter that much. On the other hand, if you are using it for business, then the speed is an important consideration.

For smaller printing jobs, faster speed to not affect quality. But for larger ones, faster ones may come at the expense of fine details and might create problems like ringing or vertical banding. Also, slow printing can lead to stringing. But whatever it is, you should opt for a printer that can meet your printing speed requirements.

Self-leveling Bed

One of the major considerations that buyers of a 3D printer have in mind is a self-leveling bed. A manual bed could be a lengthy and frustrating process. Keep in mind that an unlevel bed messes up the print. A lot of prints come with an auto bed leveling feature wherein it has a sensor that tests different points on the print bed. With this, they can better calculate the distance between the print bed and nozzle. The software adjustment helps ensure that the nozzle is at the correct distance from the bed during printing.

Although some users prefer a manual bed leveling, others opt for an auto-leveling printed bed. It is a plug and print that can significantly streamline the process.

Connectivity Options

Before you start printing, you will have to send a 3D-printable file to your printer. This could be done through various methods. Most 3D printers today have great connectivity features. They can be connected via a USB cable. Moreover, the printers come with a USB port or SD card slot for easy plugging and connectivity.

What Makes UHF Antenna Different from a VHF Antenna?

Spread the love

Whether your intention is just to add a few more local channels to your home TV setup or you just want to sever your active subscription from your current cable provider, you may just need to put up an additional antenna to do all that.

There are two sets of frequencies wherein over-the-air TV channel signals are being broadcasted. This signifies then that the specific channels you may be interested to watch on your TV could be on one band or the other. This also means to say that you won’t be able to see any of them if you fail to use the right antenna.

VHF Antenna versus UHF Antenna

uhf antennas installationFree TV channel signals or the so-called over-the-air TV channel signals are usually broadcasted on two different bands, one of which is very high frequency (VHF) and the other one is the ultra-high frequency (UHF).

The radio frequencies between 54 MHz and 216 MHz are utilized by VHF channels for transmitting their signals, while UHF channels come in higher frequencies from 470 MHz to 890 MHz.

The choice of frequency here will be determined by how well the signal would be traveling. During those days when cable TV was still not yet dominating our national airwaves, leading TV stations would be broadcasting instead of the VHF band.

The underlying reason why the VHF band became the preferred band by broadcasting companies during those days is that it is more reliable, more dependable but most importantly it is less prone to interference. Besides, it tends to carry out the signal farther by providing a specific transmission power.

We can attribute the popularity of UHF today to the fact that it is highly capable of providing more bandwidth which is essentially needed in modern high-definition programming.

Antennas With Visible Elements

If you came across an antenna that comes with visible elements, from a glance you can tell if it can handle UHF, VHF, or both.

One distinct feature of outdoor UHF antennas is they have short elements. Normally, they are just a few inches wide and are usually arranged in rows of parallel straight prongs. As for the outdoor type of VHF antenna, they usually come with much longer elements. They are arranged in a V-shaped pattern, making them easier to remember or easier to recall.

If you happen to come across a V-shaped element juxtaposed with clusters of straight elements and this will be on the same antenna, it indicates that it’s capable of receiving both signals.

The most basic and simple type of indoor antenna comes in a rabbit ears design, and this is capable of receiving the VHF signal. Whether arranged vertically or horizontally, the looped shaped antenna goes for UHF. The majority of antennas have both the loops and rabbit ears, which allows them to have seamless reception features for both sets of frequencies.

Choosing a VHF/UHF Antenna

If you are having a hard time trying to determine if your existing antenna can carry out the job for you, there are two things that you need to take into account: what channels you want to obtain and how intense are the signals they come in.

This can be tricky as opposed to what the usual impression is. For example, Channel 6 Local News is transmitting now, say for instance, on UHF channel 38 as opposed to VHF channel 6m even when it still can be seen on channel 6. By this measure, it still can preserve its branding.

If you go to the Federal Communication Commission website, you’d be able to search out your station by call sign, and conduct a side by side analysis of its virtual and the real channel numbers. For this, you may need to have your hand on a VHF antenna, a UHF antenna, or both.

Aside from those you can also refer to the dedicated website of your antenna’s manufacturers. They also indicate in there how intense or strong a signal is for a particular channel in your area.

With respect to what you will see there, you can decide what to have between an inexpensive indoor antenna and a simpler but an amplified antenna with greater potency. Or you can opt instead for a full-bore outdoor antenna.

Tools Needed for 3D Printer Maintenance

Spread the love

In the planet of 3D printing there is an issue which is not used quite frequently and that is of essential importance: having the fundamental resources for the repairs and maintenance of the 3D pt2730.

Like some additional pieces of equipment, 3D inkjet printers require maintenance after some hours of operation, in that they need to clear and lubricate or change any product that is being used.

3D printer white

3D Printer Maintenance Tools

Allow me to share the fundamental tools that are essential to effectively keep your printer:

Lubricant for 3D inkjet printers

The lubricant for 3D inkjet printers has an excellent resistance to high temperatures, so that although it is utilized in printers with warm beds the lubricant does not tend to be liquid and does not begin to drip on the printing platform. The utilization of this lubricant is suggested to avoid use and reduce friction in rods and bearings, that also raises the period of the engines when subjected to a lower ton.

Cleaner

Many owners of 3D inkjet printers, for comfort or in order to save time, do the repairing aerosols without getting rid of the printing platform of the printer, leaving remains of the fixator everywhere and giving rise in order to places where it adheres dust, and that impacts the functioning of essential components like HotEnd fans, spindles, gears, layer fans, and more. Because of this, the usage of the printer fresher is essential. Due to this aqueous solution, some surface area of the 3D printer may be cleaned readily and without producing any harm.

</center

Precise tweezers

Precise tweezers must be made of top-quality stainless steel with an anti acid, antistatic and antimagnetic coating. That they are absolutely free of electrostatic discharges (ESD) favors the usage of precision clamps in touch with electrical and electronic components vulnerable to this particular kind of discharges, giving complete security to hold out maintenance businesses at any use of the 3d pt2730.

Caliper

In the planet of 3D printing, caliper is a helpful tool to find out diameters and crucial ranges between components. This device is highly suggested to confirm the diameter of the filament, elements, state of the nozzle and make certain the same separation between connected components, as for instance between the lateral manuals of the z axis.

Allen wrenches

The Allen keys are actually an important tool for all owners of a printer, since most of them consist of a huge selection of hexagonal Allen style screws. Because of this device, some end users can conduct any maintenance running on some printer, from the replacing of a heating cartridge or a thermistor cartridge, to the complete disassembly of the printer.

 Adjustable spanner

Designated as one of the equipment that should not be lacking in any place of work, the adaptable spanner is valid for every screw type with external hexagonal head or parallelepiped shaped. In 3d printing it’s quite used to carry the heater block of the extruder and alter the nozzle in an easy way, staying away from big deviations of the heater obstruct as well as the nozzle, providing procedure for leveling the base much quicker and much easier.

Feeler Gauge

This is perfect to make a margin of separation between components that fit together or to set with accuracy the distance between two elements. For example: to sort the actual measurements of the nozzle from the starting to get a great impression, or for the proper assembly of the HotEnd and the extruder, where it’s essential to comply with the spaces that manufacturers suggest in their assembly manuals to accomplish the appropriate functioning of all of the components which form them.

 

wifi modem router

What are the Different Types of WiFi Antennas?

Spread the love

There are several types of WiFi antennas that are widely used today. They usually come with a specific purpose as to when they should be taken advantage of and how they should be used.

Anywhere you go, a different kind of antenna in use can be found, from outdoor camping grounds, hotels, resorts, and restaurants down to small office settings. While we have a handful of types of antennas, they all share one thing in common, they have a purpose and that is to produce radio waves. These radio waves carry information and travel through the air.

We only have 3 main types of antenna, the omnidirectional, highly directional, and the semi-directional.

Omnidirectional Type

Each time that you enter an office setting or you go to a friend’s home for a visit, the type of antenna being used there is likely not going to be one of your main concerns. This is because they are not found in a conspicuous place, or it is not visible. Most of the time it is integrated into the access point or the network’s router device.

Under this kind of environment, the use of a dipole antenna (which is a variant of the omnidirectional antenna) is the norm. Much like how floor light is used to radiate light, this type of antenna sends out radio frequency in all 4 cardinal directions. Hence, the name omnidirectional.

Semi-directional Type

kids using laptop with internet
Kids using laptop connected to WiFi at home

When an antenna is designed to direct the radio frequency signal to just a specific direction, it is considered as a semi-directional type of antenna. You can utilize this type for your short to medium distance communication needs, both for indoor and outdoor application.

One good analogy that we can use to illustrate how semi-directional antennas work and radiate radio frequency is to compare with a street lamp that shines or lights down the pavement on a street. Semi-directional type of antenna is commonly used in a campus-like environment, the reason being that they provide you network bridge 2 buildings together.

Highly Directional

If an antenna is on a distant communication (point-to-point), it is a qualified highly directional antenna. They are usually taken advantage of to link networks, say for instance, between two nearby buildings or structures.

These are high gain types of antenna that are known to offer users the most narrow and focused beamwidth. It works more like that of a spotlight, it will shine in just a specific direction. 

There are two main types of directional antenna, these are the Grid and Parabolic. Most of us are familiar with this as a Dish antenna.

Dish antennas are comparable to TV dish antennas found in an ordinary home, the main difference there is though is that it comes in a much larger size. Besides, there is also a size variation. Often, they resemble the appearance of a grill. They are usually intended for use in outdoor spaces that have higher, stronger winds.

Conclusion:

All kinds of antennas come with their inherent weaknesses and strengths. Those that are qualified as omnidirectional are ideal for general coverage. Besides they are also cost-effective in the sense that they provide general coverage in a central location. 

As for the directional type of antenna, they are most recommended for use in driving signals to a particular area, regardless of its distance. Understanding the nature of these basic types of WiFi antennas can be very advantageous when you are involved in a project that will have you design a wireless network.